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    Who invented the Internet?

    Since its beginnings in the 1990s the Internet has developed at a rapid rate. Thanks to the introduction of WiFi, 3G, and Full Fibre optic broadband, many of us are now always connected. But how did it all start and who was the genius behind the birth of the Internet?

    Fibre packages from * per month

    What is the Internet?

    Whether it’s browsing social media, online shopping, or streaming your favourite TV shows, most of us use the Internet every day – but what is it?

    In simple terms, the Internet is a system of communication between computer networks that allows information (whether it’s text, images, sound, or video) to be passed from one location to another. The Internet mainly works using a method called packet switching.

    Packet switching is where data is broken down into small chunks at its source, then restored at its destination. By breaking large parts of information down into these ‘packets’, computer networks can route this data across the Internet work reliably and quickly. Any packets lost along the way can be retransmitted without having to download the whole file again.

    How was the Internet invented?

    The Internet wasn’t really invented, instead it was formed using different types of computer communication technology developed by several scientific groups. Various different internets began to connect up over time, forming the Internet we know today.

    ARPANET and TCP/IP

    Back when computers took up a whole room, scientists were looking at new ways to make them process more information at faster speeds.

    This desire for speed and efficiency led to scientists developing ARPANET, a system of computer communication that was created by the US Department of Defence for government research. The first data transfer demonstrating a four-way connected network took place from Stanford University, the University of California at Santa Barbara, UCLA, and the University of Utah.

    In the 1970s, this four-way connection was the first Internet connection in the world. Scientists in many other countries developed their own in the following years, but communication between the different networks was difficult, as each connection used its own language to send and receive data.

    In 1982 Vinton Cerf, a manager for the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), joined Bob Kahn’s research team and together they worked on the first versions of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). TCP/IP became the universal language of the Internet, allowing all computers to send and route the information that was being transmitted to its destination.

    When was the Internet and email invented?

    Email was invented in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson as a method of communicating over ARPANET. However, it wasn’t until the early 1990s that email began to be used more widely, becoming one of the driving forces behind the rising popularity of the Internet.

    The Internet as we know it was invented by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee. He founded the World Wide Web in 1991 as a method of sharing research between CERN scientists more easily. Berners-Lee invented the first web browser, server, and website – his idea was based on the concept of embedding links to other pages (hyperlinks) in the HTML of the webpage itself. His Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the web address (URL) are still used today.

    For many years, the Internet was mainly used by government groups and scientists, but in 1995, commercial Internet access started to be sold to consumers.

    Dial-up Internet

    The first version of the Internet available for commercial use was dial-up. Dial-up Internet required a phone line to operate, so phone calls couldn’t be made using a landline while the Internet was in use.

    Speed was a significant issue in the early days. By 1998, the best connection users could hope for was 56Kbps. This tiny connection speed meant that downloading a file could often become a time-consuming process, and streaming music or video wasn’t possible.  Also, the earliest modems weren’t cheap with the latest 28.8Kbps modem costing up to £399 back in the early 90’s.

    First use of Broadband and WiFi

    The next development of home browsing was the introduction of broadband and wireless Internet.

    Broadband first started to replace dial-up in the early 2000s, with half of all Internet users having a broadband connection by 2007. Broadband allows a much higher volume of data to be transferred at faster speeds by using an ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) connection.

    Broadband also differs from dial-up as it’s always connected to the Internet, and doesn’t need to be ‘switched on’ to work.

    Wireless Internet started rolling out commercially to the public in 1999, with the release of the Apple Airport, closely followed by the release of a Windows-focused WiFi router in 2001. These devices quickly became the norm, replacing Ethernet cables that had to be physically plugged into a computer to work.

    Wireless Internet hotspots were soon introduced at many businesses, such as coffee shops, retail stores, and offices. Wireless Internet hotspots offer the public access to the Internet, often for free, and operate using a wireless local area network (WLAN) connected to a router.

    The invention of 2G, 3G, and 4G

    When smartphones were initially released, early adopters had to make do with a sluggish 9.6Kbps connection, even slower than traditional home dial-up. Speeds were improved with the onset of 2G, which could reach speeds of up to 56Kbps, but mobile Internet didn’t reach its potential until the development of 3G.

    This third generation of mobile Internet could reach speeds of up to 200Kbps, transforming the way we use smartphones forever. 4G was released in 2010, improving mobile Internet speeds even further to 15Mbps.

    Cable broadband

    Cable broadband was introduced after ADSL broadband, offering potentially faster Internet speeds by operating over cable television wires, rather than a phone line. Cable Internet speeds can fluctuate and are limited by the bandwidth allowed by the cable wire. While ADSL connections are widely accessible, cable broadband isn’t as common and is available to around half of the UK.

    Fibre optic broadband

    Speed and efficiency have remained at the forefront of the development of the Internet, with ultrafast Full Fibre broadband now emerging as the next evolution of connectivity.

    Openreach broadband upgrade

    As broadband technology is advancing at a great pace, all areas of the UK will be upgraded to new types of ultrafast fibre connections by 2025. As these new fibre technologies don’t need a phone line, the nationwide upgrade will also include the phasing out of landline telephone systems. Openreach decide which regions get upgraded and when. So, depending where in the country you live, you’ll have different types of fibre broadband connections available to you.

    Broadband only packages

    These types of packages are provided as fibre broadband only. This means they don’t use a phone line to set up your connection. Simply put, they’re broadband without a landline.

    Full Fibre broadband is sometimes called FTTP (Fibre to The Premises). It’s the UK’s latest, fastest, and most reliable fibre optic broadband. Using next-generation technology Full Fibre connects straight to your home, so no phone line required.

    This game-changing connection is 100% fibre optic which means you can get, ultrafast, reliable speeds up to 900Mb. It’s made to power busy online homes, supporting Smart Home tech, working from home, streaming and HD Gaming.

    Fibre broadband without a landline uses a new and simple connection, so it’s set up without a landline.

    The connection uses standard part-fibre technology. Fibre optic cables carry signals to your street cabinet, then copper cables are used to connect to your home through your master socket.

    This type of Fibre connection is sometimes called SoGEA, which stands for Single order Generic Ethernet Access. Most definitely one that’s not easy to remember. Most important thing to remember is, it’s broadband with no phone line.

    With our Fibre package you’ll get your fastest available speed at our best possible price. So you could get average download speeds of up to 66Mb. Great for streaming, gaming, and sharing all with super savings.

    If you’re interested in supercharging your Internet speed, see what fibre optic broadband deals you can get at your address, just enter your details into our broadband postcode checker.

    Fibre with home phone

    Standard fibre is provided as Fibre to The Cabinet (FTTC). It’s also part-fibre, using combination of fibre and copper cables to get you connected. The key difference is that a landline is required to set up the connection into your home.

    Our packages with home phone use old landline technology, so will only be available in areas which haven’t yet been upgraded to new fibre connections. Find out more about changes to our packages with a home phone line.

    If we can only offer you fibre packages with a phone line, you’ll see these in your deals:

    Unlimited Fibre has average download speeds of 36Mb, and Unlimited fibre Extra provides extra download speeds up to 66Mb so is ideal for households with multiple devices.

    To see what packages are available in your area pop your details into our broadband postcode checker.

    The Internet of Things

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the connection of everyday items to the Internet, allowing them to be operated digitally. The concept refers to most products beginning with ‘smart’ – like smart meters, smart thermostats, and smart locks. The IoT is intended to improve the efficiency of day-to-day life, allowing users to control household functions using a smartphone or mobile device.

    Gfast Internet

    GFast Fibre broadband uses Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTC) technology. Superfast is turned into GFast by changing the frequencies of the connection to increase download speed to up to 330 Mbps.

    However, the connection can only be increased over a short distance, so GFast broadband technology is generally offered to homes and businesses that are close to their exchange.

    At the moment, Openreach doesn’t plan to build any new GFast capabilities, as they’re now committed to rolling out the new Full Fibre network across the country.

    Plusnet also now offer a range of ultrafast Full Fibre packages with download speeds up to 900Mb.

     See if you can get Plusnet Full Fibre

    Here’s the legal bit

    You can see our full residential terms and conditions here.

    The price for broadband, line rental, call plans and call charges will be increased each March from 2022 by the Consumer Price Index rate of inflation published by the Office for National Statistics in January of that year plus 3.9%. Other prices, content and terms may also change during your contract. See our CPI Plus 3.9% Guide.

    Line rental is included in all our broadband packages, apart from our Full Fibre and Fibre packages. The standard line rental price is £28.63 a month and the standard line rental price, or where applicable the discounted line rental price, is included in the package price.

    Unlimited Fibre Extra (18 and 24 month contracts)

    Prices and terms are subject to change during your contract.

    For new Plusnet customers that sign up for 18 or 24 months (as appropriate). Line rental is included in the price (line only, no calls included). Price from month 19 or 25 (as appropriate) currently £58.69 a month (incl. line rental). Compatible line required otherwise a £49.99 installation charge may apply (excluding any external construction charges). We'll include a wireless router. Outside of your 14 day cancellation period, if you choose to end your service within the minimum period, you will have to pay an early termination charge.

    The date your broadband and line rental activates, or where your services do not activate at the same time, the service that activates first, will be used as your monthly billing date. If your broadband or line rental service are not activated at the same time, for the service that is activated at a later date, charges will be pro rated for the first month and any applicable discounts for that service will apply once the service starts.

    Subject to availability and cannot be used in conjunction with any other offer. No cash alternative. Exclusions and terms apply.

    Unlimited Fibre (18 and 24 month contracts)

    Prices and terms are subject to change during your contract.

    For new Plusnet customers that sign up for 18 or 24 months (as appropriate). Line rental is included in the price (line only, no calls included). Price from month 19 or 25 (as appropriate) currently £51.54 a month (incl. line rental). Compatible line required otherwise a £49.99 installation charge may apply (excluding any external construction charges). We'll include a wireless router. Outside of your 14 day cancellation period, if you choose to end your service within the minimum period, you will have to pay an early termination charge.

    The date your broadband and line rental activates, or where your services do not activate at the same time, the service that activates first, will be used as your monthly billing date. If your broadband or line rental service are not activated at the same time, for the service that is activated at a later date, charges will be pro rated for the first month and any applicable discounts for that service will apply once the service starts.

    Subject to availability and cannot be used in conjunction with any other offer. No cash alternative. Exclusions and terms apply.

    Unlimited Broadband (18 and 24 month contracts)

    Prices and terms are subject to change during your contract.

    For new Plusnet customers that sign up for 18 or 24 months (as appropriate). Line rental is included in the price (line only, no calls included). Price from month 19 or 25 (as appropriate) currently £44.35 a month (incl. line rental). Compatible line required otherwise a £49.99 installation charge may apply (excluding any external construction charges). We'll include a wireless router. Outside of your 14 day cancellation period, if you choose to end your service within the minimum period, you will have to pay an early termination charge.

    The date your broadband and line rental activates, or where your services do not activate at the same time, the service that activates first, will be used as your monthly billing date. If your broadband or line rental service are not activated at the same time, for the service that is activated at a later date, charges will be pro rated for the first month and any applicable discounts for that service will apply once the service starts.

    Subject to availability and cannot be used in conjunction with any other offer. No cash alternative. Exclusions and terms apply.

    Fibre (12, 18 and 24 month contracts)

    Prices and terms are subject to change during your contract.

    For new Plusnet customers that sign up for 12, 18 or 24 months (as appropriate). Price from month 13, 19 or 25 (as appropriate) currently £32.37 per month. Compatible line required otherwise a £49.99 installation charge may apply (excluding any external construction charges). We'll include a wireless router. Outside of your 14 day cancellation period, if you choose to end your service within the minimum period, you will have to pay an early termination charge.

    Subject to availability and cannot be used in conjunction with any other offer. No cash alternative. Exclusions and terms apply.

    12 month contracts are not available online, but they are available through our contact centre. Please call us on 0330 1239 123 and we will be happy to help.

    Full Fibre Broadband (12, 18 and 24 month contracts)

    Prices and terms are subject to change during your contract.

    For new Plusnet customers that sign up for 12, 18 or 24 months (as appropriate). Price from month 13,19 or 25 (as appropriate) currently: Full Fibre 74 - £37.03, Full Fibre 145 - £43.20, Full Fibre 300 - £49.38, Full Fibre 500 - £58.02, Full Fibre 900 - £67.89. Compatible line required. Otherwise an installation is required. We'll include a wireless router. Outside of your 14 day cancellation period, if you choose to end your service within the minimum period, you will have to pay an early termination charge.

    Subject to availability and cannot be used in conjunction with any other offer. No cash alternative. Exclusions and terms apply.

    Openreach Survey: In some cases Openreach have to carry out a survey before they can connect a home to Full Fibre. To do this they may need access to your property. If they do we'll contact you to arrange a suitable time. If additional work is required, this may take longer than the initial set-up time provided and there could be additional costs. Our team of specialists will contact you to confirm what additional work is needed and how long this will take, usually within four weeks from the date your order was placed. If you don't want to proceed with your upgrade based on this, you will be able to cancel your order and no charges will be applied to your account.

    12 month contracts are not available online, but they are available through our contact centre. Please call us on 0330 1239 123 and we will be happy to help.

    Unlimited Broadband (no contract)

    Prices and terms are subject to change during your contract.

    For new Plusnet customers that sign up for a 30-day rolling contract. Line rental is included in the price (line only, no calls included). Price from month 13 currently £44.35 a month (incl. line rental). Compatible line required otherwise a £49.99 installation charge may apply (excluding any external construction charges). We'll include a wireless router. You may terminate your services at any time without having to pay an early termination charge. Outside your 14 day cancellation period, you'll have to give at least 14 days' notice.

    The date your broadband and line rental activates, or where your services do not activate at the same time, the service that activates first, will be used as your monthly billing date. If your broadband or line rental service are not activated at the same time, for the service that is activated at a later date, charges will be pro rated for the first month and any applicable discounts for that service will apply once the service starts.

    Subject to availability and cannot be used in conjunction with any other offer. No cash alternative. Exclusions and terms apply.

    Existing customers

    Please see our price guide, log into your account in the Member Centre or call us on 0800 073 1120 to discuss your contract.

    Speeds

    Φ Broadband speed is described as 'average download speed of 10Mb', as it is based on speed available to at least 50% of customers at peak time (8-10pm). Your actual speed will be dependent on your location, broadband line, home wiring, WiFi connection and time of day. Find out why speeds vary. Check your speed and products available at your location via 'check availability' on our home page.

    † Fibre broadband speed is described as 'average download speed of 66Mb' and 'average upload speed of 18Mb' on Unlimited Fibre Extra. 'Average download speed of 36Mb' and 'average upload speed of 9Mb' on Unlimited Fibre and 'average download speed of 50Mb' and 'average upload speed of 9Mb' on Fibre. It is based on speed available to at least 50% of customers at peak time (8-10pm). Your actual speed will be dependent on your location, broadband line, home wiring, WiFi connection and time of day. Find out why speeds vary. Check your speed and products available at your location via 'check availability' on our home page.

    Ө Up to 6x faster: based on a comparison between the average Unlimited Fibre Extra download speeds with the average Unlimited Broadband speeds. The actual speed you'll get depends on your location, broadband line, home wiring, WiFi connection and time of day. Find out why speeds vary. Check your speed and products available at your location via 'check availability' on our home page.

    Broadband Extras

    Plusnet Safeguard

    Included with all of our broadband packages, Plusnet Safeguard filters inappropriate web content for your household. Further information can be found here.

    Plusnet Protect powered by Norton™

    Our security package protects you from online threats. Charges apply for Unlimited Fibre broadband customers. Further information can be found here.

    Software Support for Plusnet's Broadband Devices

    For further information on Product Security and Telecommunications Infrastructure (PSTI), software support and how to report software vulnerabilities please refer to Software Support and Reporting Security Issues.

    Evening & Weekend UK & Mobile calls:

    Evening & Weekend calls: Calls of up to an hour to UK landlines beginning with 01, 02, 03, 0845 and 0870 numbers made Monday-Friday 7pm to 7am and any time Saturday or Sunday (except calls to indirect access numbers (which include calling cards) and dial-up internet access). Calls must be started and finished within these times to be inclusive (non-chargeable). A fair usage limit of 150 calls or 1000 minutes a month (whichever is reached first) applies to calls to 0845 and 0870 numbers (if you exceed this limit, we have the right to charge you for further calls made, suspend and/or terminate your service in accordance with our terms and conditions).

    Mobile calls: Calls to UK mobiles and 070 personal numbering services made Monday-Friday 7pm to 7am and any time Saturday or Sunday. Calls must be started and finished within these times to be inclusive (non-chargeable). A fair usage limit of 1000 minutes a month applies (if you exceed this limit, we have the right to charge you for further calls made, suspend and/or terminate your service in accordance with our terms and conditions). Hang up and re-dial before 60 minutes and you won't be charged. Some 07 numbers do not constitute mobile numbers and may not be included as part of an inclusive mobile package.

    Unlimited UK & Mobile calls:

    Anytime calls: Calls of up to an hour to UK landlines beginning with 01, 02, 03, 0845 and 0870 numbers at any time (except calls to indirect access numbers (which include calling cards) and dial-up internet access). Calls must be started and finished within these times to be inclusive (non-chargeable). A fair usage limit of 150 calls or 1000 minutes a month (whichever is reached first) applies to calls to 0845 and 0870 numbers (if you exceed this limit, we have the right to charge you for further calls made, suspend and/or terminate your service in accordance with our terms and conditions).

    Mobile calls: Calls to UK mobiles and 070 personal numbering services made at any time. Calls must be started and finished within these times to be inclusive (non-chargeable). A fair usage limit of 2000 minutes a month applies (if you exceed this limit, we have the right to charge you for further calls made, suspend and/or terminate your service in accordance with our terms and conditions). Hang up and re-dial before 60 minutes and you won't be charged. Some 07 numbers do not constitute mobile numbers and may not be included as part of an inclusive mobile package.

    Anytime International 300:

    Anytime calls: Calls of up to an hour to UK landlines beginning with 01, 02, 03, 0845 and 0870 numbers at any time (except calls to indirect access numbers (which include calling cards) and dial-up internet access). Calls must be started and finished within these times to be inclusive (non-chargeable). A fair usage limit of 150 calls or 1000 minutes a month (whichever is reached first) applies to calls to 0845 and 0870 numbers (if you exceed this limit, we have the right to charge you for further calls made, suspend and/or terminate your service in accordance with our terms and conditions).

    25% discount to top 35 international destinations: (Anytime International 300) Get a 25% discount on chargeable calls to all countries listed in our top 35 international destinations. For more information see our tariffs guide.

    300 Anytime minutes: (Anytime International 300) Means 300 inclusive minutes to USA mobiles, Canada mobiles and all landlines listed in our top 35 international destinations. Hang up and re-dial before 60 minutes and you won't be charged.

    Other call information:

    Mobile minutes: Are available to Line Only and the Anytime International 300 call plan and adds 100 inclusive minutes to UK mobile numbers and 070 personal numbering services at any time. Hang up and re-dial before 60 minutes and you won't be charged. Some 07 numbers do not constitute mobile numbers and may not be included as part of an inclusive mobile package.

    Service calls outside of your inclusive minutes: The charge for calls to service numbers beginning 084, 087, 09 and 118 consists of a 9.58p per minute access charge from Plusnet, plus a service charge set by the company you called. For more information visit www.plus.net/ukcalling.

    Calls to Plusnet Support and other Plusnet line rental customers are included in all line rental packages. Calls to other Plusnet phone customers are included for the first hour. Hang up and re-dial before 60 minutes and you won't be charged.

    For more information on our landline tariffs, see our guide here.

    For more information on call rates for service numbers, see our guide here.

    Phone Line Extras

    Voicemail

    1571 Voicemail: Included as standard, our answer phone-style feature takes messages when you can't get to the phone.

    Voicemail Extra: This advanced voicemail service lets you record your own greeting, store up to 30 messages and listen to them when you're not at home. Voicemail Extra costs £3 a month. Further information about Voicemail Extra can be found here.

    Caller Display

    See the number of the person who is calling you (you'll need a phone that supports this service). Further information about Caller Display can be found here. Subject to availability.

    Plusnet Call Protect

    Included in all line rental packages, this blocks nuisance calls on your landline and sends them straight into your junk voicemail. Further information about Plusnet Call Protect can be found here. Subject to availability.

    EE SIM plan: 30 day minimum term. Subject to terms and credit check. Monthly charges assume online billing. You will not get 5G speeds using a 4G phone. Allowances for use in UK (excluding Jersey, Guernsey & Isle of Man) and Republic of Ireland. A daily charge applies to use allowances in the EU/EEA unless you have an add-on or Inclusive Extra that includes EU Roaming. See roaming costs page for countries and details. 50GB data fair use policy applies outside the UK. See ee.co.uk/terms for countries and details. Deposit needed for roaming in limited circumstances. Use your allowance to call/text UK mobiles, and landlines starting 01, 02 and 03 when in UK & Republic of Ireland. Some numbers aren’t included: calls to 070 numbers cost up to 5p/min and calls to 084, 087, 09 & 118 cost 83p/min plus the applicable service charge. See ee.co.uk/prices for the EE Price Guide for a detailed list of service charges and other charges outside of your allowance. Personal use only. Essentials SIM: Includes speeds capped at 100Mbps, Data Gifting and Stay Connected Data.

    Stay Connected Data: If you have a capped data allowance (i.e. not an unlimited data plan) once you have used up your monthly data allowance your speed will be capped at 0.5Mbps. You will regain access to your standard plan speeds upon (1) renewal of your monthly plan allowance, (2) by buying one of our data add-ons, or (3) if you are gifted data by someone else in your family account. Once the data add-on or gifted data runs out, you will return to the capped speed until your monthly plan allowance has renewed. Not available with No Frills plans.;

    Data gifting: Account holder only can gift between pay monthly plans on the same account in increments of 500MB. Unlimited data plans can gift up to 100GB. Data usage on an unlimited data plan will be deducted from giftable allowance. No gifting to/from Smart Watches, 4G Home, 5G Home or 30-day 4G WiFi or 5G WiFi plans. Data not used in a month does not roll over, allowances are set back to zero at the start of each month. If you are outside your price plans standard countries when your monthly allowances refresh on your bill date the main account holder will not be able to gift data until you return to the UK/EU. Data can only be used in accordance with the plan terms applicable to the receiving line.

    Our award-winning, UK based customer support is available 7 days a week

    0330 1239 123

    8am - 8pm Monday to Sunday

    0330 1239 123

    8am - 8pm Monday to Sunday